Vital Results Standards for
Lesson 3
Theme: Dimpled Ballots, Hanging Chads, and Reform

State Vital Results Standards to which this lesson relates:

Communications
Reading Comprehension

1.3 Students read for meaning, demonstrating both initial understanding and personal response to what is read. This is evident when students:
1.3.g. Analyze, interpret, and evaluate texts produced for a wide range of purposes and audiences, including their cultural, political, and aesthetic contexts.

Reading Range of Text
1.4 Students comprehend and respond to a range of media, images, and text (e.g., poetry, narrative, information, technical) for a variety of purposes (e.g., reading for pleasure as well as reading to develop understanding and expertise). This is evident when students:
1.4.c. Read primary and secondary sources;

Reports
1.8 In written reports, students organize and convey information and ideas accurately and effectively. This is evident when students:
1.8.j. Use a variety of strategies to develop the report; and
1.8.k. Organize text in a framework appropriate to purpose, audience, and content.

Persuasive Writing
In persuasive writing, students judge, propose, and persuade. This is evident when students:
1.11.e. Take an authoritative stand on a topic;
1.11.f. Support the statement with sound reasoning;

Information Literacy
1.18 Students use computers, telecommunications, and other tools of technology to research, to gather information and ideas, and to represent information and ideas accurately and appropriately.Research
1.19 Students use organizational systems to obtain information from various sources (including libraries and the Internet). This is evident when students:
1.19.b. Develop an effective search strategy to satisfy their informational needs;
1.19.c. Conduct effective searches for information and ideas;
1.19.d. Evaluate information for timeliness, relevance, bias, accuracy, quality, and accessibility;
1.19.e. Synthesize and organize information;
1.19.f. Present information in appropriate formats

Reasoning and Problem Solving
Problem Solving Process

2.2 Students use reasoning strategies, knowledge, and common sense to solve complex problems related to all fields of knowledge. This is evident when students:
2.2.aaa. Critically evaluate the validity and significance of sources and interpretations.Civic and Social Responsibility

Democratic Processes
4.2 Students participate in democratic processes.

Continuity and Change
4.5 Students understand continuity and change. This is evident when students:
4.5.aaa. Analyze personal, family, systemic, cultural, environmental, historical, and societal changes over time - both rapid, revolutionary changes and those that evolve more slowly.

Understanding Place
4.6 Students demonstrate understanding of the relationship between their local environment and community heritage and how each shapes their lives. This is evident when students:
4.6.bbb. Evaluate and predict how current trends (e.g., environmental, economic, social, political, technological) will affect the future of their local community and environment.

History and Social Sciences
Causes and Effects in Human Societies

6.1 Students examine complex webs of causes and effects in relations to events in order to generalize about the workings of human societies, and they apply their findings to problems. This is evident when students:
6.1.d. Use knowledge of change and continuity in making decisions and taking action on public issues

Historical Connections
6.4 Students identify major historical eras and analyze periods of transition in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide, to interpret the influence of the past on the present. This is evident when student:
Post War United States(1945-present) analyze the domestic issues facing the US in post World War II as well as foreign policy issues.

Meaning of Citizenship
6.9 Students examine and debate the meaning of citizenship and act as citizens in a democratic society. This is evident when students:
6.9.b. Analyze and debate the problems of majority rule and the protection of minority rights as written in the U.S. Constitution.

Types of Government
6.10 Students compare and evaluate the philosophical underpinnings and the workings of different types of governments, including constitutional governments, in various times in their local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide. This is evident when students:
6.10.bbb. Evaluate how political systems, including the American system, evolve